Fresh Perspectives Issue 22. Private standard impacts on developing country producers: a personal experience of GlobalGap certification in Kenya.
Kenya is predominantly an agro-based economy, with agriculture employing about 80 per cent of the population. Agriculture accounts directly for 26 per cent of the gross domestic product and indirectly for an additional 27 per cent. It is estimated that small-scale farmers or smallholders account for about 60 per cent of the country's total agricultural output. Although smallholders in Kenya have traditionally dominated the horticultural sector, during the past decade they have steadily lost market share, owing to the limitations of their size of operation, as well as inadequate technical knowledge and managerial capacity. Their position has been further eroded by the introduction of stringent new laws and market standards that aim to ensure sound environmental management, ethical trade practices, good agricultural practices, and high quality. This paper draws on field experience of the implications of GlobalGap certification on Kenyan producers and offers some key factors for success in sustaining smallholders' participation.
International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK, 2 pp.