The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1000 micro g dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3000 micro g, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100 : 1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3000 micro g loading.
Journal of Chemical Ecology (2001) 27 (9) 1867-1877 [doi: 10.1023/A:1010416927282]