Constraints, attitudes and travel behaviour of low income households in two developing cities. (TRL Report 263).
In many cities of the developing world rapid population growth coupled with limited financial resources available for investment in urban infrastructure has led to severe transport and mobility constraints. These problems are
exacerbated by locating many of the urban poor on city fringes, where land is available but employment opportunities are scarce, thereby generating substantial demand for low cost travel to workplaces and other amenities. However, low income housing has frequently developed in areas which are inadequately served by public transport services. Almost inevitably this lack of transport has an effect on the quality of life of these residents in terms of
access to employment, education, shopping and medical facilities; factors which are essential for sustainable economic and social development.
This report documents the findings of travel surveys carried out in two representative cities of the developing world, namely Pune (India) and Accra (Ghana). The influence of household income and gender were investigated in terms of modal choice, trip frequency, and attitudes to public transport
and personal vehicles. It is hoped that the results will provide transport policy makers with an improved understanding of travel constraints and thereby enable the formulation of better transport development projects in the future.
The results point to a number of policy issues that need to be considered, for example that women are often the most affected by inadequate transport provision and that the acquisition and use of personal vehicles is determined as much by culture as by economic considerations.