Limited data are available on the characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) disease in young children, especially in high-burden countries.
The objective of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of TB in children aged
TB records and chest radiographs of children born in Cape Town in 1999 and diagnosed with TB between 1999 and 2004 were reviewed retrospectively.
A total of 1607 cases were registered. The cumulative incidence of definite (bacteriologically confirmed) and probable (radiological evidence and > or =1 TB clinical feature) TB in children aged 1 lobe involved). The under 5 years incidence of disseminated TB was 0.33%. Of 239 (15%) cases that were bacteriologically confirmed, clinical features typical of TB disease were individually present in 2 weeks and weight loss, occurring in 43/239 (18%).
The study concludedd that TB incidence was high, and peaked in children aged 12-23 months. Many children experienced severe disease. A fifth of children with microbiologically confirmed disease presented with only one feature typically associated with TB.
Moyo, S.; Verver, S.; Mahomed, H.; Hawkridge, A.; Kibel, M.; Hatherill, M.; Tameris, M.; Geldenhuys, H.; Hanekom, W.; Hussey, G. Age-related tuberculosis incidence and severity in children under 5 years of age in Cape Town, South Africa. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (2010) 14 (2) 149-154.